Honore Daumier

  Ignacio Zuloaga

Personal Details:



Place of birth

Marseille, France

Year of Birth


Year of death





The Third-Class Carriage, Gargantua, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834

Honoré Daumier was a French painter who is best known for his works of social satire, particularly his lithographs. Daumier was born in 1808 in Marseille, France, to a family of modest means. He received very little formal education, and when his family moved to Paris in 1816, his father apprenticed him to a bookseller.

In 1822, at the age of 14, Daumier began taking drawing classes from the painter Alexandre Lenoir. Lenoir encouraged Daumier to pursue painting and helped him get a job in a lithography shop. Daumier's first lithograph was published in 1827, and he soon rose to prominence as a popular printmaker.

Daumier's lithographs, which often depicted scenes of everyday life, were often critical and satirical of the political and social circumstances of 19th-century France. His works often mocked the failures of the monarchy and the bourgeoisie. His most famous works include "Gargantua," a series of lithographs showing a giant character representing the monarchy, and "Rue Transnonain," a series of lithographs depicting the massacre of civilians by French troops during the April 1834 revolt.

In addition to his printmaking, Daumier also painted in oil on canvas. His paintings, which often featured scenes of everyday life, were not as popular as his prints and were often overlooked during his lifetime. However, his paintings have since been recognized as important works of French Realism. His most famous painting is "The Third-Class Carriage," which depicts a group of third-class passengers in a cramped and uncomfortable train carriage.

Despite his success as a printmaker and painter, Daumier was often financially unstable. His works were often not well-paid, and he was frequently in debt. He was arrested several times for his critical works and was eventually forced to move to a small village outside of Paris. His works became less political in his later years and focused more on landscapes and still-lifes.

Honoré Daumier was a pioneering painter who used his works to criticize the societal and political issues of 19th-century France. His lithographs and paintings, which often featured scenes of everyday life, were popular both during his lifetime and in the years since his death in 1879. His works are now considered an important part of French Realism, and he is remembered as one of the greatest painters of the 19th century.