Crayola is a brand of crayons and other writing
and drawing utensils, such as markers, chalk, and colored pencils
manufactured by Binney & Smith Inc.
It is primarily popular in the United States, Canada,
Australia, and the United Kingdom.
Crayola Crayons were invented by cousins Edwin
Binney and C. Harold
Smith. The first box of crayons sold for a nickel, was produced
in 1903 and contained eight colors: red, orange, yellow, green,
blue, violet, brown, and black. The word "Crayola" was
formed by the wife of Edwin Binney, Alice Stead Binney, who combined
the French words for chalk(craie) and oily(oleaginous).
A timeline of Crayola's history:
1864: Joseph Binney founds Peekskill Chemical Works
in upstate New York for producing charcoal and lamp black.
1880: Joseph Binney sets up headquarters in New York City, joined
by son Edwin Binney and nephew C. Harold Smith.
1885: Joseph Binney retires; Edwin and C. Harold Smith, form a
partnership and call their company Binney & Smith. Early products include
red oxide pigment used in barn paint and carbon black used for car
tires. During this time, Binney & Smith took an active role
in the development and production of carbon black from natural gas,
after natural gas deposits were found throughout Pennsylvania.
1900: The company begins producing slate school pencils in its
newly opened Easton, Pennsylvania mill. It introduces the first
dustless school chalk two years later. The product wins a gold
medal at the St. Louis World Exposition.
1902: Binney & Smith incorporates September 30, in Easton, Pennsylvania,
and serves as general distributor for several carbon black producers,
introducing carbon black to other countries.
1903: Noticing a need for safe, quality, and affordable wax crayons,
the company produces the first box of eight Crayola crayons containing
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, and black sticks.
It sells for a nickel. The Crayola name, coined by Edwin Binney's
wife Alice, comes from craie, the French word for chalk, and ola,
1920: Crayola Rubens Crayons for Art Students and Perma Pressed
Sharpenable Fine Art Crayons are added to the growing product line,
which also includes new Artista brand paints.
1936: Binney & Smith becomes a founding member of the Crayon,
Watercolor, and Craft Institute, promoting product safety in art
1948: To educate art teachers about the many ways to use the growing
number of Crayola products, a teacher workshop program begins to
offer in-school training across the country.
1952: A Binney & Smith factory in Winfield, Kansas opens to
handle the company's growing business.
1958: The 64-color assortment of Crayola crayons—with a built-in
1961: Binney & Smith becomes a publicly held company.
1963: Binney & Smith becomes a member of the American Stock
Exchange on May 1, with the symbol: BYS.
1969: The company opens an additional factory in Easton, Pennsylvania,
followed five years later by a new corporate headquarters.
1976: Binney & Smith corporate headquarters relocated from New
York City to Forks Township in Easton, Pennsylvania.
Binney & Smith is listed on the New York Stock Exchange on June
19, with the symbol: BYS.
Crayola crayons celebrate their 75th anniversary, and Crayola markers
are introduced. Craft and activity kits become a vital part of
the company's business.
1979: All children's product lines are repackaged to carry the
Crayola trade name and all fine art materials are repackaged to
carry the Liquitex trade name.
1980: A private distributorship in Australia is purchased to form
Binney & Smith (Australia) Pty. Ltd. to market and distribute
finished Crayola products.
Binney & Smith becomes a wholly-owned subsidiary of gift and
greeting card seller Hallmark Cards Inc., of Kansas City, Missouri.
Crayola DREAM-MAKERS art education program is introduced in the
nation's elementary schools.
1987: Crayola introduces washable
markers. Crayola colored pencils also arrive.
1990: Eight Crayola crayons—maize, raw umber, lemon yellow,
blue gray, orange yellow, orange red, green blue, and violet blue—are
retired into the Crayola Hall of Fame in Easton, Pennsylvania.
1991: Binney & Smith offers the eight retired Crayola crayon
shades, along with a 64-box, in the Crayola Collector's Colors Tin
for a limited time. Crayola Washable crayons are introduced.
1992: Crayola introduces Model Magic, a modeling compound, into
its long line of products.
1993: Binney & Smith celebrates the Crayola brand's 90th birthday
with its biggest crayon box ever—it holds 96 crayons, including
16 new colors. For the first time, the company asks consumers to
name the colors through the Crayola Name The New Colors Contest.
1994: Crayola introduces a scented version of crayons called Magic
The 100 billionth Crayola crayon rolls off the production line
in Easton, Pennsylvania.
On July 16, Binney & Smith celebrates the grand opening of The
Crayola Factory visitors' center in Easton, Pennsylvania with the
Crayola ColorJam parade.
Crayola Color Wonder makes its debut and takes home trophies in
several national toy testing programs including Family Fun magazine's
Toy of the Year Awards, Duracell Ultra Toy Survey, and Today's
Toy Test 2000, sponsored by the Today Show on NBC.
Binney & Smith invites crayon enthusiasts of all ages to make
their favorite color count in the Crayola Color Census 2000, the
first cyber-search for America's favorite crayon colors. The winner:
blue. Six other shades of blue finished in the Top 10 including
cerulean, midnight blue, aquamarine, periwinkle, denim, and blizzard
blue. Other colors rounding out the Top 10 list included purple
heart, caribbean green, and cerise.
The colors in the 8, 16, and 24 packs.Crayola crayon packs come
in multiples of eight: 8, 16, 24, 32, (40), 48, (56), 64, 72,
80, (88), 96, (104), (112), and 120 packs. The 120 pack is sometimes
a package composed of two 48 pack containers and a 16 pack container.
The most important Crayola crayon colors are the ones that come
in the smaller packs since these are most prevalent.
Here are the colors in the 8, 16, and 24 packs
as of 2005:
8 colors in the 8 pack +8 = 16 pack +8 = 24
Black #000000 Blue Green #0095B6 Apricot #FDD5B1
Blue #0066FF Blue Violet #6456B7 Cerulean #02A4D3
Brown #AF593E Carnation Pink #FFA6C9 Dandelion #FED85D
Green #01A368 Red Orange #FF3F34 Gray #8B8680
Orange #FF681F Red Violet #BB3385 Green Yellow #F1E788
Red #ED0A3F White #FFFFFF Indigo #4F69C6
Violet (purple) #8359A3 Yellow Green #C5E17A Scarlet #FD0E35
Yellow #FBE870 Yellow Orange #FFAE42 Violet Red #F7468A