Edvard Munch (December 12, 1863 – January
23, 1944) was a Norwegian expressionist painter and printmaker.
His intense, evocative treatment of anguish greatly influenced development
of German expressionism in the early 20th century.
The Scream (1893; originally called Despair), Munch's
best known painting, is regarded as an icon of existential anguish.
As with many of his works, he painted several versions of it. The
Scream is one of the pieces in a series titled The Frieze of Life,
in which Munch explored the themes of life, love, fear, death and
melancholy. It was stolen from the Munch-museum in Oslo, Norway,
August 22. 2004, and unsubstantiated rumors record it as being destroyed
by the thieves.
The Frieze of Life themes recur throughout Munch's
work, in paintings such as The Sick Child (1886, portrait of his
deceased sister Sophie), Vampire (1893–94), Ashes (1894),
and The Bridge. The latter shows limp figures with featureless or
hidden faces, over which loom the threatening shapes of heavy trees
and brooding houses. Munch portrayed women either as frail, innocent
sufferers or as lurid, life-devouring vampires. Munch analysts say
this reflects his sexual anxieties.
Born on December 12th, 1863, Løten, Norway,
Munch grew up in Christiania (now Oslo). He was related to painter
Jacob Munch (1776 – 1839) and historian Peter Andreas Munch
(1810 – 1863). After the death of his mother, Laura Cathrine
Bjølstad, of tuberculosis in 1868, Munch was raised by his
father, Christian Munch, until 1889 when his father died. Christian
Munch instilled in his children a deep-rooted fear of hell by repeatedly
telling them that if they sinned, in any way, they would be doomed
to hell without chance of pardon. While Munch was still young, his
mother, a brother and Munch's favourite sister Sophie (in 1877)
died. A younger sister was diagnosed with mental illness at an early
age. Munch was also often ill. Of the five siblings only Andreas
married, only to die a few months after the wedding. This may explain
the bleakness and pessimism of much of Munch's work. He would later
say, "Sickness, insanity and death were the angels that surrounded
my cradle and they have followed me throughout my life." A
number of modern sources have described Munch's illness as probably
being bipolar disorder.
In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college
to study engineering, but frequent illnesses interrupted his studies.
In 1880, he left the college to become a painter. In 1881, he enrolled
at the Royal School of Art and Design of Kristiania. His teachers
were sculptor Julius Middelthun and naturalistic painter Christian
Krohg.Munch traveled to Paris in 1885, and his work began to show
the influence of French painters — first of the impressionists,
and then of the postimpressionists and of art nouveau design. While
stylistically influenced by the postimpressionists, Munch's subject
matter is symbolist in content, depicting a state of mind rather
than an external reality.Munch maintained that the impressionism
idiom did not suit his art. Interested in portraying, not a random
slice of reality, but situations brimming with emotional content
and expressive energy, Munch carefully calculated his compositions
to create a tense atmosphere.
During his career, Munch changed his idiom many
times. In the 1880s, Munch's idiom was naturalistic, such as Portrait
of Hans Jæger, and partly impressionistic (Rue Lafayette).
In 1892, Munch formulated his characteristic, and original, Synthetist
idiom as seen in Melancholy in which colour is the symbol-laden
element (The Scream).Death in the Sickroom. c. 1895. Edvard Munch.
Oil on canvas. 59 x 66 in. Nasjonalgalleriet at Oslo.During the
1890s, Munch favoured a shallow pictorial space, and used it in
his frequently frontal figures. Since he chose the poses to produce
the most convincing images of states of mind and psychological conditions
(Ashes), the figures lend to the paintings' a monumental, static
quality. Munch's figures appear to play roles on a theatre stage
(Death in the Sick-Room), even perhaps a pantomime of fixed postures
signifying the emotions. Because he gave his characters only one
psychological dimension, as in The Scream, Munch's men and women
do not seem realistic.
In 1892, the Union of Berlin Artists invited Munch
to exhibit at its November exhibition. His paintings invoked bitter
controversy at the show, and after one week the exhibition closed.
In Berlin, Munch involved himself in an international circle of
writers, artists and critics, including the Norwegian playwright
Henrik Ibsen (Munch designed the sets for several Ibsen's plays),
and the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg.Between 1892 and 1908,
Munch divided his time between Paris and Berlin, where he became
known for his etchings, his lithographs, and his woodcuts. While
in Berlin at the turn of the century, Munch experimented with a
variety of new media (photography, lithography and woodcuts), in
many instances re-working his older imagery.
In the autumn of 1908, Munch's anxiety became acute
and he entered the clinic of Dr. Daniel Jacobsen. The therapy Munch
received in hospital changed his personality, and after returning
to Norway in 1909, he showed more interest in nature subjects, and
his work became more colourful and less pessimistic.In the 1930s
and 1940s, Nazi's labeled his work "degenerate art", and
removed his work from German museums. This deeply hurt the antifascist
Munch, who had come to feel Germany was his second homeland.Munch
died in Ekely, near Oslo, on January 23, 1944, about a month after
his 80th birthday. He left 1,000 paintings, 15,400 prints, 4,500
drawings and watercolors, and six sculptures to the city of Oslo,
which built the Munch Museum at Tøyen in his honor. The museum
houses the broadest collection of his works. His works are also
represented in major museums and galleries in Norway and abroad.